Marcel Babin
Research scientist (1998 - 2011)
Adjunct Professor (2011 - present)
Contact information:
Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche
B.P. 8
06238 Villefranche-sur-Mer, Cedex

Phone: +33 (0)4 93 76 37 12

Fax: +33 (0)4 93 76 37 39

Ph. D. Biology (1988 - 1991)
Université Laval , Quebec City, Canada
"Improved parameterisation of a primary production model designed for data from ocean colour remote sensing"
M. Sc. Biology (1986 - 1987)
U. Québec Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada
"Inventory of the habitat of the American Woodcock using remote sensing"
B. Sc. Biology (1983 - 1986)
U. Québec Rimouski , Rimouski, Canada
Research interests:

Interactions between light and matter in the ocean, including :

  • Light absorption and scattering properties of optically significant dissolved and particulate substances found in seawater: phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), organic (non-algal) and mineral particles
  • Light propagation in coastal waters
  • Photosynthetic properties of phytoplankton
  • In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence by phytoplankton and related processes
  • Photo-oxidation and photo-degradation of CDOM (recent interest)
  • Primary production modelling
  • Ocean colour remote sensing

Favourite environments :

  • Coastal waters and estuaries
  • Open ocean, namely tropical and sub-tropical waters
  • Soon, Arctic !

Students and Post-Doc :


Ph. D. :

Post-Docs :





  • Massicotte, P., G. Bécu, S. Lambert-Girard, E. Leymarie and M. Babin, Estimating underwater light regime under spatially heterogeneous sea ice in the Arctic, Applied Sciences, submitted.
  • 2018

  • Goyens C., S. Marty, E. Leymarie, D. Antoine, M. Babin, and S. Bélanger (2018), High angular resolution measurements of the anisotropy of reflectance of sea ice and snow. Earth and Space Science,
    doi: 10.1002/2017EA000332 (Get PDF reprint)
  • Joli, N., Babin M., Ardyna M., Tremblay J.-É., Gosselin M., Onda D.F. and C. Lovejoy (2018). Northern Baffin Bay as an Arctic Janus gateway to the North Atlantic, Science Advances, in press
  • Somayajula, S. A., E. Devred, S. Bélanger, D. Antoine, V. Vellucci, and M. Babin (2018). Evaluation of sea-surface photosynthetically available radiation algorithms under various sky conditions and solar elevations." Applied Optics 57 (12): 3088-3105 (Get PDF reprint)
  • 2017

  • Ardyna M., M. Babin, E. Devred, A. Forest, P. Raimbault, M. Gosselin, and J.-É. Tremblay (2017). Shelf-basin gradients shape ecological phytoplankton niches and community composition in the coastal Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Limnology and Oceanography, doi:10.1002/lno.10554. (Get PDF reprint)
  • Matsuoka A, Boss E, Babin M, Karp-Boss L, Hafez M, Chekalyuk A, Proctor C, Werdell PJ, Bricaud A (2017) Pan-Arctic optical characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter: Tracing dissolved organic carbon in changing Arctic waters using satellite ocean color data. Remote Sensing of Environment 200, 89-101, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.08.009. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2015

  • Doxaran, D., Devred E. and M. Babin (2015). A 50% increase in the amount of terrestrial particles delivered by the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic Ocean) over the last 10 years. Biogeosciences, 12, 3551–3565. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Lee, Y.J., P. A. Matrai, M. A. M. Friedrichs, V. S. Saba, D. Antoine, M. Ardyna, I. Asanuma, M. Babin, S. Bélanger, M. Benoit-Gagné, E. Devred, M. Fernández-Méndez, B. Gentili, T. Hirawake, S.-H. Kang, T. Kameda, C. Katlein, S. Lee, Z. Lee, F. Mélin, M. Scardi, T. Smyth, S. Tang, K. Turpie, K. Waters, and T. Westberry, 2015. An assessment of phytoplankton primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean from satellite ocean color/in situ chlorophyll-a based models, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JC011018. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Matsuoka, A., Ortega-Retuerta, E., Bricaud, A., Arrigo, K. and M. Babin (2015). Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Western Arctic Ocean: relationships with microbial activities. Deep-Sea Research II, (Get PDF Reprint).
  • 2014

  • Antoine D, M Babin, J-F Berthon, A Bricaud, B Gentili, H Loisel, S Maritorena and D Stramski (2014). Shedding Light on the Sea: André Morel’s Legacy to Optical Oceanography, Annual Reviews of Marine Science, 6:15.1–15.21. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Matsuoka, A., M. Babin, D. Doxaran, S. Hooker, B.G. Mitchell, S. Bélanger and A. Bricaud (2014). A synthesis of light absorption properties of the Arctic Ocean: application to semianalytical estimates of dissolved organic carbon concentrations from space. Biogeosciences, 11, 3131–3147,, doi:10.5194/bg-11-3131-2014. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2013

  • Antoine, D., S.B. Hooker, S. Bélanger, A. Matsuoka, and M. Babin (2013). Apparent Optical Properties of the Canadian Beaufort Sea, Part I: Observational Overview and Water Column Relationships, Biogeosciences, 10, 4493–4509, doi:10.5194/bg-10-4493-2013. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Bélanger, S., Cizmeli, S. A., Ehn, J., Matsuoka, A., Doxaran, D., Hooker, S., and Babin, M.(2013). Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multiyear ice melting, Biogeosciences, 10, 6433-6452, doi:10.5194/bg-10-6433-2013. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Forest A., M. Babin, L. Stemmann, M. Picheral, M. Sampei, L. Fortier, Y. Gratton, S. Bélanger, E. Devred, J. Sahlin, D. Doxaran, F. Joux, E. Ortega-Retuerta, W.H. Jeffrey, J. Martín, B. Gasser, J.C. Miquel, Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean): an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings. Biogeosciences, 10, 2833-2866. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Matsuoka, A., S.B. Hooker, A. Bricaud, B. Gentili & M. Babin (2013). Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space. Biogeoscience. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Song, G., Xie, H., Bé´langer, S., Leymarie, E. and M. Babin (2013). Spectrally resolved efficiencies of carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction in the western Canadian Arctic: particles versus solutes. Biogeosciences, 10, 3731–3748, doi:10.5194/bg-10-3731-2013. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2012

  • Babin, M., D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, and E. Leymarie (2012) In press. Determination of the volume scattering function of natural water samples. Applied Optics, 51, 17, 3853-3873 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Doxaran, D., Ehn, J., Bélanger, S., Matsuoka, A., Hooker, S., and M. Babin (2012): Optical characterisation of suspended particles in the Mackenzie River plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean) and implications for ocean colour remote sensing, Biogeosciences, 9, 3213-3229, doi:10.5194/bg-9-3213-2012 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Forest, A., L. Stemmann, M. Picheral, L. Burdorf, L. Fortier, and M. Babin. 2012. Size distribution of particles and zooplankton across the shelf-basin system in southeast Beaufort Sea: combined results from an Underwater Vision Profiler and vertical net tows. Biogeosciences, 9, 1301-1320. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Matsuoka, A., A. Bricaud, R. Benner, J. Para, R. Sempéré, L. Prieur, S. Bélanger and M. Babin (2012). Tracking the transport of colored dissolved organic matter in the Southern Beaufort Sea : relationship with hydrographic characteristics. Biogeosciences, 9, 925–940, doi:10.5194/bg-9-925-2012 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Simis, S. G. H., Y. Huot, M. Babin, J. Seppälä, and L. Mersamaa. 2012. Optimization of variable fluorescence measurements of phytoplankton communities with cyanobacteria. Photosynthesis Research 112: 13-30. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2011

  • Doron, M, S. Bélanger, D. Doxaran and M. Babin (2011). Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance. Remote Sensing of Environment, 15, 1617-1631 (Get PDF Reprint).
  • Doron, M., M. Babin, O. Hembise, A. Mangin, and P. Garnesson. 2011. Ocean transparency from space: validation of algorithms estimating Secchi depth using MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2986-3001 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Lefouest, V., C. Postlethwaite, M. A. Morales Maqueda, S. Bélanger, and M. Babin. 2011. On the role of tides and strong wind events in promoting summer primary production in the Barents Sea. Continental Shelf Research 31: 1869-1879. (Get PDF reprint)
  • Matsuoka, A., V. Hill, Y. Huot, M. Babin and A. Bricaud. Seasonal variability in the light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and colored dissolved organic matter in western Arctic waters: parameterization of the individual components of absorption for ocean color applications. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, C02007, doi:10.1029/2009JC005594. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Mermex group including D'Ortenzio, M. Babin, M. Chami, D. Doxaran and V. Taillandier (2011). Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing in the Mediterranean. Progress in Oceanography, 91, 97-166. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2010

  • Bricaud, A., Babin, M., Claustre, H., Ras, J. and F. Tieche (2010). Light absorption properties and absorption budget of South East Pacific waters. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 115, C08009, doi:10.1029/2009JC005517. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Huot, Y. and Babin, M. (2010) Overview of fluorescence protocols : Theory, basic concepts, and practice. Chap. 3, p. 31-74, in Suggett, D., Borowitzka, M.A. and Prasil, O. (eds.) Chlorophyll a fluorescence in aquatic science : Methods and applications. Springer, Berlin, Developments in Applied Phycology vol. 4, 323 p (Get PDF reprint)
  • Leymarie, E. , D. Doxaran, and M. Babin (2010). Uncertainties associated to measurements of inherent optical properties in natural waters, Applied Optics, 49, 5415-5436 (Get PDF reprint)
  • 2009

  • Doxaran D., J.M. Froidefond, P. Castaing and M. Babin, 2009. Dynamics of the turbidity maximum zone in a macrotidal estuary (the Gironde, France): Observations from field and MODIS satellite data. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 81, 321–332. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Doxaran D., Ruddick K. McKee D., Gentili B., Tailliez D., Chami M., and M. Babin (2009), Spectral variations of light scattering by marine particles in coastal waters, from the visible to the near infrared. Limnology and Oceanography, 54, 1257-1271. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2008

  • Bélanger, S., M. Babin, and P. Larouche (2008), An empirical ocean color algorithm for estimating the contribution of chromophoric dissolved organic matter to total light absorption in optically complex waters, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C04027, doi:10.1029/2007JC004436. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Stramski, D., Reynolds, R. A., Babin, M., Kaczmarek, S., Lewis, M. R., Röttgers, R., Sciandra, A., Stramska, M., Twardowski, M.S. and H. Claustre (2008). Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans. Biogeosciences, 5, 171-201, doi:10.5194/bg-5-171-2008
  • Uitz, J., Huot, Y., Bruyant, F., Babin, M. and H. Claustre (2008) Relating phytoplankton photophysiological properties to community structure on large scale, Limnology and Oceanography, 53(2), 614-630 (Get PDF Reprint).
  • 2007

  • Bélanger, S., Ehn, J. and M. Babin, (2007). Impact of sea ice on the retrieval of water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration and inherent optical properties from satellite Ocean Color data. Remote Sensing of Environement, 111, 51–68 (Get PDF Reprint).
  • Doron, M. , Babin, M., Mangin, A. and O. Fanton d'Andon (2006). Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance. Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 112, C06003, doi: 10.1029/2006JC004007. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Doxaran, D., M. Babin and E. Leymarie.  Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters. Optics Express, Vol. 15, No. 20 12834-12849 (Get PDF Reprint).
  • Huot, Y., M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski and H. Claustre (2007).  Does chlorophyll a provide the best index of phytoplankton biomass for primary productivity studies? Biogeosciences, 4, 853-868 (Access to paper on line).
  • Matsuoka A, Y. Huot, K. Shimida, S.-I. Saitoh and M. Babin (2007) Bio-optical characteristics in the Western Arctic Ocean: Implications for ocean color algorithms, Canadian Journal of Remote sensing, 33, 503-518. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Morel, A., Gentili, B., Claustre, H., Babin, M., Bricaud, A., Ras, J., and F. Tieche (2007) Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters, Limnology and Oceanography, 52(1), 217-229 (Get PDF Reprint).
  • Oubelkheir, K., Claustre, H., Bricaud, A., Babin, M. (2007) Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions, Limnology and Oceanography Methods, 5, 384-395 (Get PDF Reprint).
  • Prasil O., D. J. Suggett, J. J. Cullen, M. Babin and Govindjee (2007). Aquafluo 2007: chlorophyll fluorescence in aquatic sciences, an international conference held in Nove´ Hrady. Photosynthetis Research
    DOI 10.1007/s11120-007-9234-5 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Stramski, D., M. Babin and S.B. Wozniak (2007) Variations in the optical properties of terrigenous mineral-rich particulate matter suspended in seawater, Limnology and Oceanography, 52, 2418-2433. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2006

  • Bélanger, S., H. Xie, N. Krotkov, P. Larouche, W. F. Vincent, and M. Babin (2006), Photomineralization of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in Arctic coastal waters from 1979 to 2003: Interannual variability and implications of climate change, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB4005, doi:10.1029/2006GB002708. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2005

  • Bruyant F., M. Babin, F. Genty, O. Prasil, M.J., Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, J. Holtzendorff, M. Koblizek, L. Garczareck and F. Partensky (2005). Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: combined effects of light and cell cycle. Limnology and Oceanography, 50, 850-863. (Get PDF Reprint).
  • Claustre, H., Babin, M., Merien, D., Ras, J., Prieur, L., Dallot, S., Prasil, O., Dousova, H. and T. Moutin (2005). Towards a taxon-specific parameterization of bio-optical models of primary production a case study in the North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, (C07S12, doi:10.1029/2004JC002634). (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Oubelkheir, K., Claustre, H., Babin, M., Sciandra, A. (2005). The comparative bio-optical and biogeochemical properties of contrasted trophic regimes. Limnology and Oceanography, 50 (6)-1795-1809. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2004

  • Babin, M., and D. Stramski (2005). Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water. Limnology and Oceanography, 49, 756-767 (Get PDF Reprint).
  • Behrenfeld M.J., O. Prasil, M. Babin and F. Bruyant (2004). In search of a physiological basis for covariations in light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis. Journal of Phycology, 40, 4-25. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2003

  • Babin, M., A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell and D. Stramski (2003). Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration. Limnology and Oceanography, 48, 843-859 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Babin, M., Stramski, D., Ferrari, G.M., Claustre, H., Bricaud, A., Obolensky, G., and N. Hoepffner (2003). Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe, Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2001JC000882 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Ferrari, G. M., Bo, F., and M. Babin (2003). Geo-chemical and optical characterization of suspended matter in european coastal waters. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, 57, 17-24 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2002

  • Babin, M., and D. Stramski (2002). Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region. Limnology and Oceanography, 47, 911-915 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Claustre, H., Morel, A., Hooker, S.B., Babin, M., Antoine, D., Oubelkheir, K., Bricaud, A., Leblanc, K., Quéguiner, B. and S. Maritorena (2002). Is desert dust making oligotrophic waters greener? Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 1469, 10.1029/2001GL014056 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Claustre, H., Bricaud, A., Babin, M., Bruyant, F., Guillou, L., Le Gall, F., and F. Partensky (2002). Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties. Limnology and Oceanography, 47, 1637-1647 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Maritorena, S., Babin, M., Claustre, H., Payri, C., Bonnafous, L. and A. Morel (2002). Photoacclimation in Pocillopora verrucosa zooxanthellae: comparison with a pelagic algal community. Oceanologica Acta, 25, 125-134 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2001

  • Bruyant, F., Babin, M., Sciandra, A., Marie, D., Genty, B., Claustre, H., Blanchot, J., Bricaud, A., Rippka, R., Boulben, S. and  F. Partensky (2001). An axenic turbidostat of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511 with a simulator of natural light regimes. Journal of Applied Phycology, 13, 135-142 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Garczarek, L., Partensky, F., Irlbacher, H., Holtzendorff, J., Babin, M., Mary, I., Thomas, J.-C., and W. R. Hess (2001). Differential expression of antenna and core genes in Prochlorococcus PCC 9511 (Oxyphotobacteria) grown under a modulated light-dark cycle. Environmental Microbiology, 3, 168-175 (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Loisel, H., Stramski, D., Mitchell, B.G., Fell, F., Fournier-Sicre, V., Lemasle, B. and M. Babin (2001). Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling. Applied Optics, 36, 769-777. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 2000

  • Claustre, H., Fell, F., Oubelkheir, K., Prieur, L., Sciandra, A., Gentili, B. and M. Babin (2000). Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences. Limnology and Oceanography, 45, 309-321 (Get PDF reprint)
  • Sciandra, A., Lazzara, Claustre, H., and M. Babin (2000). Responses of the growth rate, pigment composition and optical properties of Cryptomonas sp. to light and nitrogen stresses. Marine Ecology progress Series, 201, 107-120 (Get PDF reprint)
  • Tassan, S., Ferrari, G.M., Bricaud, A. and M. Babin (2000). Variability of the amplification factor of light absorption by filter-retained aquatic particles in the coastal environment. Journal of Plankton Research, 22, 659-668.(Get PDF reprint)
  • 1999

  • Claustre, H., Morel, A., Babin, M., Cailliau, C., Marie, D., Marty, J.-C., and D. Vaulot (1999). Variability in particle attenuation and stimulated fluorescence in the tropical and equatorial Pacific : scales, patterns and some biogeochemical implications. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 3401-3422. (Get PDF reprint 10MB)
  • 1998

  • Bricaud, A., Morel, A., Babin, M., Allali, K. and H. Claustre (1998). Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with the chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (Case 1) waters : analysis and implications for bio-optical models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 31,033-31,044. (Get PDF Reprint & Erratum)
  • Behrenfeld, M.J., Prasil, O., Kolber, Z.S., Babin, M. and P.G. Falkowski (1998). Changes in electron turnover rates protect photosynthesis from photoinhibition. Photosynthesis Research, 58, 259-268.(Get PDF Reprint)
  • 1997

  • Nieke, B., Reuter, R., Heuermann, R., H. Wang, M. Babin, M., and J.-C. Therriault (1997). Light absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Case 2 Waters). Continental Shelf Research, 17, 235-252. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 1996

  • Babin, M., Morel, A., Falkowski, P.G., Claustre, H., Bricaud, A. and Z. Kobler (1996). Nutrient- and light-dependent variations of the maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation in eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic systems. Deep Sea Research, 43, 1241-1272. (Get PDF reprint)
  • Babin, M., Morel, A., and B. Gentili (1996). Remote sensing of sea surface sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, 2417-2448. (Get PDF reprint)
  • Morel, A., Antoine, D., Babin, M., and Y. Dandonneau (1996). Measured and modeled primary production in the Northeast Atlantic (EUMELI JGOFS program): The impact of natural variations in photosynthetic parameters on model predictive skill. Deep-Sea Research I, 43, 1273-1304. (Get PDF reprint)
  • 1995

  • Allali, K., Bricaud, A., Babin, M., Morel, A., and P. Chang (1995). A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles. Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 1526-1532. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Babin, M., Therriault, J.-C., Legendre, L., Nieke, B., Reuter, R. and A. Condal (1995). Relationship between the maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation and the minimum quantum yield of chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 956-968. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • Bricaud, A., Babin, M., Morel, A. and H. Claustre (1995). Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient of natural phytoplankton : analysis and parametrization. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, C7, 13321-13332. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 1994

  • Babin, M., Morel, A. and R. Gagnon (1994) An incubator designed for extensive and sensitive measurements of phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters. Limnology and Oceanography, 39, 694-702. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 1993

  • Babin, M., Therriault, J.-C., Legendre, L. and A. Condal  (1993). Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: Impact on estimates of primary production. Limnology and Oceanography, 38, 154-177. (Get PDF Reprint)
  • 1991

  • Babin, M., Therriault, J.-C. and L. Legendre (1991) Potential utilization of temperature in estimating primary production from remote sensing data in coastal and estuarine waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 33, 559-579. (Get PDF reprint)
Home | About Us | People | Projects | Equipment | Publications
© Copyright 2005 Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab. All rights reserved.